Contrepoint entre le sens commun et la philosophie en Islam
Collection Patrimoines - Islam
176 pages - avril 2008
The ‘decrees’ of Ghazali and Averroes touch the very heart of Islam, the ‘religion of the Book’ par excellence. In ‘The Distinctive Criteria between Islam and the Hypocrites’ (1005-1006), Ghazali explains that philosophers, by pretending to know what escapes believers who possess only their common sense, prevent themselves from receiving the Koran as the Word revealed, and can be no more than qualified interpreters. Worse: their mere existence is a threat for the Muslim community. On the contrary, in ‘The Decisive Treatise on the Agreement Between Religious Law (1179-1180), Averroes, in response to Ghazali, demonstrates that only the philosopher can fully appreciate the revealed truth. Only he can explain the condition of the believer confronted with the precious Book, with a God who made the world. This controversy took place between two believers. Here are two Muslim thinkers, convinced by the existence of a Book in which God speaks to thinking creatures only of the excellence of Muslim society. Yet they are radically opposed in their interpretation of the sacred Book. Doesn’t mutual comprehension between men, and the very existence of debate, presuppose the sharing of a basic language? Ghazali, like David Hume in the 18th century and many people today, is convinced that a certain level of discourse, in the light of men’s common experience in a world that is the same for all of us, permits rational thought and meaningful discussion. Averroes, on the other hand, is convinced that only philosophy is capable of resolving significant debates; and that without it, there are only diverse opinions and multiple experiences. Lastly, and most importantly, he believes that without philosophy, it is impossible to interpret the Koran as the true and coherent Word of God. The debate between Ghazali and Averroes is not one between philosophy and religion or between reason and revelation, often considered as being specific to the Middle Ages. It rather resembles today’s questions at the heart of philosophical discussion. It also sheds great light on the debate on rationality in Islam which was reopened by Pope Benedict XVI in his speech at Ratisbonne.
- Dimensions : 145x235x12
- ISBN : 9782204083706
- Poids : 260 grammes
Avec la collaboration de : Annie Laurent